Sunday, May 17, 2020

The Problem Of Climate Change - 1745 Words

Humans are egotistical. They want to make sure that they are noticed and that the attention is focused on them. Of course it happens unintentionally most of the time but, when it does happen it is at the most extreme level. For as long as humans have been on Earth, this and past generations have been destroying our home. Not just by the physical appearance though. All aspects of Earth have been at least altered by humans, including the climate. Climate change is becoming one of the fastest growing problems that the world is facing. Once one thing changes, it causes a ripple effect creating complications for Earth and everything that is part of Earth. If this problem is not fixed soon, the Earth as we know it will be forever changed. One of the biggest problems about the topic of climate change is that people do not understand the meaning of climate change or what problems that it can cause if it is untreated. Firstly, the definition of climate is the change of weather over a period o f time. The confusion of the definitions of weather, global warming and climate are partly to blame for the misunderstanding of what climate actually is. Weather is the daily change of the atmosphere. For example, a change is weather could be considered as a 72 degree day and the following day a thunderstorm. An example of climate would be data showing the rainfall over a period of time and interpreting what the data say. Some data could say that the 2015 year had less rainfall compared toShow MoreRelatedThe Problem Of Climate Change1438 Words   |  6 Pagessplash in the water. However, there is one problem, an action such as driving to the beach front will almost certainly contribute to the destructive effects of climate change. Due to this claim, is it then morally obligatory to not go on this Sunday morning drive in an effort to prevent greenhouse gas emissions? This is the question I would like to address. Each day individuals commit actions of miniscule value that arguably contribute to climate change. Driving a car on a Sunday morning is justRead MoreThe Problem Of Climate Change904 Words   |  4 PagesClimate Change Have you ever wonder that what is our true enemy of the earth? Would what people had done will be alright? If we look at the world crisis now a day, people might know that everywhere around the world the number one problem probably be climate change. In the past, one thousand the world we live never change so much. But what happened is in 5 years we have seen something that is quite difficult to be seen such as earthquake, flood, and hurricane. There is the anger of nature that isRead MoreThe Problem Of Climate Change1188 Words   |  5 Pagesis involved with the climate change in California? Humans, corporations, electricity generators, petroleum refineries facilities, oil and gas production, hydrogen plants, and cogeneration. What part of the country is exactly doing the most damage? Long Beach - Los Angeles, CA. How many people are affected, according to official records? People who are residences in California, are the one who are most affected. Mostly the general people, who i s in the radius of climate change. For example SacramentoRead MoreThe Problem Of Climate Change1075 Words   |  5 Pageswarfare happens it is a huge reason we have lost. According to the fermi paradox we either pass this wall (barrier) or not. I have my conclusion of why we will fail, it is because humans are selfish, hard headed, fool mined incompetent beings. Climate change is the barrier that we don t really have any research on. El ninos and la ninas are the cause. To know El Nià ±o, you need to know the intercoarse between the ocean and the atmosphere. Warm ocean surface water currents heats and adds moistnessRead MoreClimate Change Is A Serious Problem1123 Words   |  5 PagesClimate Change is a Serious Problem to the Planet â€Å"Climate change is happening, humans are causing it, and I think it is perhaps the most serious environmental issue facing us.† This quote from Bill Nye illustrates the serious nature of climate change. Climate change is the most serious issue that is plaguing the world. Global temperatures have been increasing in recent years and it is clear that our climate is changing. Climate change is the change of temperature and weather in our environmentRead MoreClimate Change Is A Serious Problem1028 Words   |  5 PagesHumans will destroy the earth if no one acts. Climate change is a serious problem that has been around for decades. The 21st century is special because of the technology and information available. Yet, people continue to ignore the overwhelming destruction happening to nature. Through many years, masses have begun to take responsibility and restore the planet. In time, the earth might be what it once was. Climate change began in the 1820s with Joseph Fourier and in the 1860s with John Tyndall. FourierRead MoreClimate Change Is Real And A Problem Essay1229 Words   |  5 PagesThe issue is simple and rather obvious; climate change is real and a problem. With a changing climate comes rising sea levels, hotter days, and stronger and wilder storms, and long painful droughts. What most people can’t seem to agree on is whether or not human activity is playing some role in it. From media outlets to internet forums, the debate is being fought on all fronts. Most of these arguments, however, are just personal opinions and poorly-made observations from the comfort of a gas-guzzlingRead MoreProblems Associated With Climate Change1053 Words   |  5 Pages1. What is this report about? It considers threats and impacts associated with climate change could be reduced and handled through mitigation and adaptation. The report evaluates resilience, choices, opportunities, constraints, needs, limits, as well as other features connected with adaptation. Climate change requires shifting probabilities of impacts that are varied with complicated interactions. A focus on danger, which will be not old in this report, complements other aspects of the report andRead MoreClimate Change Is An Ongoing Problem1569 Words   |  7 PagesClimate change is an ongoing problem in our world. There are many health effects, shortage of resources due to energy use, and perhaps more importantly, the detrimental and in some cases irreversible environmental impacts. The climate does change due to natural forces, however; human impacts are the cause of such dramatic change. â€Å"Unless greenhouse gas emissions are severely reduced, climate change could cause a quarter of land animals, birdlife and plants to become extinct† (Weather InformationRead MoreClimate Change Is A Global Problem Essay1336 Words   |  6 PagesAnthropogenic climate change is often considered to be greatest threat currently posed on the world. Climate change fits into the public goods framework in terms of both mitigation and adaptation policy (Boyer 2013). Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by human activity are heavily impacting the climate, and thus creating externalities that are impacting the globe, such as rising global temperatures, increasing extreme weather incidents, and changing weather patterns. These externalities are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder - 993 Words

According to National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Autism is defined as a spectrum disorder (ASD). It refers to a wide range of complex neurodevelopment conditions characterized by repetitive and distinctive patterns of behavior and difficulties with social skills, communication, and interaction. The symptoms start from early childhood and affect daily functioning. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) approximates ASD’s prevalence as 1 in 68 children in the United States. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes Asperger syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, Autistic disorder, Rett’s disorder, and pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)†¦show more content†¦On the other hand, the hypothesis that children with ASD would demonstrate more physiological distress compared to TD children was validated for NS-SCR frequency but not for SCL. A significantly higher ele ctro dermal arousal was seen only for NS-SCR. These results therefore incompletely validate the hypothesis that children with ASD would be more uncooperative than TD children always activating their sympathetic nervous system in this time of stress. It was observed that physiological stress is notably interrelated with behavioral distress in children with ASD. As physiological stress increases so did behavioral distress. This was not seen in the TD children. A possible reason for this is their better coping mechanisms. Uncooperative behavior in the TD group was correlated only with age. As the child’s age decrease, the greater uncooperative behavior was noted. Uncooperative behavior was strongly correlated with impairments in communication and expression in children with ASD. This suggest that the dentist’s ability to give instructions may be restricted, and the child’s ability to communicate choices, needs, fears, and pain to the dentist may be likewise compro mised. Children with ASD will possibly benefit from conventional behavioral management strategies that rely on communication such as tell-show-do, visual aids, voice control, nonverbal communication, and verbal positive reinforcement. The second study I choseShow MoreRelatedChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1502 Words   |  7 Pagesby a disorder that affects the very things we need to fit in to society. The ability to be able to fit in, communicate and behave in proper ways, allows us to function, work and survive in life. For many children and adults, they live with a disorder that dictates these behaviors and language skills to be very different from the average American. These skills they are challenged with, make it very difficult to live independently. The disorder these individuals live with is called Autism SpectrumRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1125 Words   |  5 PagesIn the last decade, the rate of autism has experienced a dramatic increase (Gerber 1). There used to be a speculation of an apparent correlation between the numbers of vaccines children receive and the increase of autism. A predominant controversy regarding vaccinations was whether or not one of the side effects of vaccines is Autism Spectrum Disorder. The probability of vaccines in children resulting in autism was challenged by various researchers from around the world has proven to be untrue (GerberRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay2241 Words   |  9 PagesAbstract Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have received little Research attention historically, with most family studies focusing on either the child with the illness/disorder or the parents. More recently, research has identified that these children may need support in their own right, yet little published research is reported to inform this support. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the extent to which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder facing psychosocialRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1796 Words   |  8 PagesParenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Doctors diagnose one in sixty-eight children with Autism Spectrum Disorder every day. Autism Spectrum Disorder is a developmental disorder that affects children’s social skills, communication skills, and their behavior. The symptoms of ASD range from moderate to severe and vary from each child. Raising typical children is difficult, but raising children with disabilities adds to the stress of parenting. There is a strain on parents who have children withRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder949 Words   |  4 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder is a frightening diagnosis for most families that can bring with it fears of an uncertain future. Support for children with autism and their families is essential because it isn t something that children will just grow out of. It is a life-long condition, but the right treatment, support and care can create a positive outcome for everyone concerned. Diagnosis Early diagnosis is the most important thing you can do to help your child, as it is the first step in understandingRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder869 Words   |  4 Pageswith children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) experiences more stress than the typical family without a children with ASD. A previous research study by Baker-Ericzen, Brookman-Frazee Stahmer(2005, p. 194) supports this statement, â€Å"Both parents of children with ASD report higher levels of both parent and child related stress juxtaposed with parents of typically developing toddlers†. In order to comprehend the information of the study, one must understand what autism spectrum disorder is. AutismRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1493 Words   |  6 Pagestwo million individuals are affected by autism in the United States and it is one of the fastest growing disorders but with very much research being put behind it. Autism can tend to be one of the most confusing and stressful disorders but yet it is still able to be coped with lots of patience. Imagine being put down or not given an opportunity deserved because of something that is out of one’s control, more specifically children with autism spectrum disorder. Parents have a huge role in preparingRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder2302 Words   |  10 Pagesof all children. Children play for many reasons including learning, exercise, stimulation, and for pure entertainment. They are learning and exploring the world around them by testing out ideas and just having fun playing wit h simple objects. However, like language, play is a skill that develops in stages. As a child gradually learns to understand the world around him or her, they begin to play and learn by engaging in exploratory and manipulative play. This is no different for children withRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder853 Words   |  4 Pageswise) (Green, S., Davis, C., Karshmer, E., Marsh, P., Straight, B, 2005) Autism spectrum disorder pose greater threat to the family because of many reasons like the child with autism spectrum disorder is likely to be accompanied by disruptive antisocial behaviour. Second for the parents the process of make an accurate diagnosis and obtaining treatment is often a frustrating experience. Third after the diagnoses of the disorder the proper access to the services available for the child and family isRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder956 Words   |  4 Pageslives of children with autism spectrum disorder, and the battles the parents have to face. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2015), â€Å"Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of complex neurodevelopment disorders characterized by repetitive and characteristic patterns of behavior and difficulties with social communication and interaction.† As someone who lives with an autistic child, the daily challenges faced are enormous. Autistic children tend to have

FDRs new deal Essay Example For Students

FDRs new deal Essay When President took office in March of 1932 he had an idea of a plan, which would have to develop over time, which was the New Deal for the American People. He believed that if this plan went through, it would solve the problem of the Great Depression and restore the American economy. President Roosevelts New Deal that took time to develop included programs that would help the unemployed get jobs, social security issues such as welfare, and housing and agricultural recovery. Roosevelt also included programs to help the banking system. President Roosevelts New Deal failed to restore the economy as Roosevelt had hoped it would, but in turn it helped the people that suffered the most from the Great Depression by giving the hope and confidence they needed. President Roosevelt was by far the most active president we have had, even though little progress was made. His first accomplishment when he took office was restoring the confidence people had lost in the banking system. He did not solve the problems of the banking system, but he did come up with the Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933. This act gave power to the government to control some of the banking systems and also allowed them to re-open financially secure banks. The Glass-Stbagall Banking Reform Act, which forbade banks to invest customers money into the stock market. President Roosevelt also tried to better the economy by causing inflation. Inflation would cause an increase in prices and businesses would make more profit and the economy would boom. The new production caused an increase in the need of workers, thus causing the unemployment rate to decrease. One way the New Deal was able to give jobs to the jobless was via the Civilian Conservation Corps. This program gave jobs to civilians between the ages of eighteen and twenty-five; they were planting trees, building dams, and stopping the erosion of the soil. By August of 1933, 300,000 men were at work. Roosevelt also aided the farmers through the Agricultural Adjustment Act. This act helped farmers meet their mortgages, which went hand in hand with the Home Owners Loan Corporation. Through these acts the government used millions of dollars to try to relieve farmers economic crises. But by doing this, Roosevelt caused an increase in the national debt. President Roosevelt also helped strengthen the policies for the building of houses. Roosevelt set up the Federal Housing Administration in hopes that he would stimulate the housing industry, which went in conjunction with the United States Housing Authority, which gave government loans for low-cost construction. But the New Deal failed to accomplish what it had in mind, FDR hoped that the people would support it and be happy, but the people were more worried about their social security. The social security of the people had more importance than housing. The Social Security Act of 1935 provided security for the elderly. The elderly were to receive money that was taken from employees. This meant that when employees retired, the money that had been taken away from them would be given to them in turn. Although it seemed that the New Deal was helping people; it did not. The money was basically going in a cycle and not going directly to aid them in their crisis time, the young workers woul d have to wait to get their money and so they were not being helped in their time of need. Overall it seemed that the New Deal was helping the economy, but it was a never-ending cycle where that no one could take advantage until an ample amount of time had passed. It did not aid them when they needed it. The national debt stood at an enormous figure of $19,487,000,000 and rose to $40,440,000,000 by 1939. America had become a handout state that instead of leading to prosperity only stood for unlimited spending. The New Deal gave confidence to the people but did little to get rid of the problems the economy faced. .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d , .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .postImageUrl , .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d , .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:hover , .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:visited , .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:active { border:0!important; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:active , .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u47ae03fc057a399bc610363c5874d37d:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Braham Stoker's Dracula Draculas EssayBibliography:

Monday, April 20, 2020

The racial discrimination among employers

Although open racism in America and other European nations is almost extinct, the vice still exists among some employers. A critical study on the employment criteria between the African-Americans and the Whites draws some observable disparities. The disparities prove difficult to measure because the researchers are not employers. Probably the employment criterion is far beyond racial discrimination.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on The racial discrimination among employers specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The employers can base their recruitment on education quality, work experience, and not race, while others can base their recruitment on the identity of the race. On the other hand, the use of audit studies may generate poor results because the auditors may base their conclusion on what the society holds about racial discrimination. Therefore, although there is uniformity in the racial discrimination among empl oyers, statistically, researchers are unable to measure the elimination criteria applied. In their study, Bertrand and Mullainathan look at the labor market (recruitment criteria) in Chicago and Boston by posing as job seekers. The following discussion ascertains the statistical findings of the aforementioned researchers on the inconsistency of employment opportunities, between the African-Americans and the whites. To overcome the aforementioned loopholes in the study of racial inequality in the job market, Bertrand and Mullainathan posed as job seekers by creating many resumes. Physical involvement in the study was challenging because of biasness among the researcher/auditors or the employers would not readily show the racial gap in their companies. Bertrand and Mullainathan considered crucial issues like education quality, work experience, social background, and neighborhood. For instance, the African-Americans and the whites have different and distinct names that any American or European would easily identify. First, half of the resumes had white names and the other half African-American names. Secondly, a group of the resumes with white names had high education qualifications, which was similar to the African-Americans. Thirdly, the last group (Whites and African-Americans) had lower education qualifications. Basing on the local newspapers job adverts in sales, administration, clerical, and customer services the researchers deployed the resumes to the respective employers.Advertising Looking for article on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The sweeping assumption was that all employers would easily categorize the names as per the race. The use of newspaper as the only source of job outlet is a weakness in the experiment. However, the next discussion expounds on the key findings of Bertrand and Mullainathan. Statistically, Bertrand and Mullainathan calculated the call back rates as per the race, which was in the form of names. The names purporting as white people received 9.65 percent calls inviting them for interviews while those with African-American names received 6.45 percent invitations for the interview. Although the applicants had similar qualifications or form of resumes, there was a 50 percent variation in the recruitment. More over, in cases where the male African-Americans applied they had a lower chance when compared to their female counterparts. Thus, from the variation in call back rates, Bertrand and Mullainathan conclude with all other factors like social background and education constant employers practice racial discrimination. Ideally, all the people with similar qualifications/resume quality regardless of the race should receive at least an invitation for the interview. Unfortunately, the significant difference in the invitation for interview has a positive relation to eventual employment. In their discussion, the two researchers disqualify the relationship between occupation, racial discrimination, and wages. Therefore, the difference in wage allocation, in industries cannot measure racial discrimination, because the rate of callback varies among the industries. This article on The racial discrimination among employers was written and submitted by user Kaylynn Hebert to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Haier case Essays

Haier case Essays Haier case Paper Haier case Paper What was their competitive strategy order winner? Product innovation is Harriers competitive advantage, which combined with supply chain Innovation. Based on different customers lifestyle, Haler focus on product differentiation, which produced hundreds of unique products across Healers strategic model with low-end, value, and high-end brands. Such competitive advantage Is created by supply chain Innovation. Haler cooperate with suppliers Into product design. It uses modularization to speed up the design process and to facilitate the manufacturing process. And Instead of partnership with number of suppliers, Haler lust works with two suppliers to concentrate on quality. The order winner for Haler Is that corporate strategy is focus from R to after-sales service and support. Product differentiation is designed to satisfy customer with variety expectations. After -sales customer service provides maintenance and repair service for customers support. 2. What changes in SCM strategy and macro design were taking place? SCM strategy is highly effective, macro design is make to order, no product is developed without taking account of what customers want, and no product is manufactured thou a real customer order. 3. How were their SCM execution processes planned to support this strategy? In order to achieve product innovation as competitive advantage, execution process has support such strategy in all dimension, such as supplier management, production management, logistics management, service management and order management. : In supplier management, Hair collaborate with suppliers to work with reduced number of suppliers to develop a cooling system that reduced refrigerator power consumption by 30 percent and time to market by 33 percent. Such example shows Hair suppliers management effectively achieves production innovation by collaboration. In production management, Haler uses modularization to facilitate the manufacturing process. The factories are facilitating mass production of deferent refrigerator models. In logistics management, Haler established Inbound and outbound logistics subsidiary, 1000 full trucks leave Haler factories everyday with finished products, such capacity make the promise end-customers speedy delivery possible. In Service management, Haler established after sale services to customers, for example, people can contact a toll-free hooting and bring their appliances to the repay Haler store for repair. In order management, make to order Is the strategy, which means company will not ship an order until the retail customer has paid In full. It looks Like Haler Is In stage 4, wanly Is cross-enterprise collaboration Ana optimization. Evidence shows in its global and domestic supply chains strategy. In global supply chain, Hair spans six large regional markets. Two strategies differ markedly, but the supporting supply chains have some thins in common. Firstly, Hairier hires local staff in each market, each market owns its local team to develop coal sales and distribution cha nnels. Second is the collaboration across global leadership for defining harmonize supply chain processes, including demand planning, procurement, and manufacturing, logistics, and order delivery. These are the common strategy as standardization. For data sharing process, S process enables Hairier to align sales and manufacturing plans on a weekly basis both in China and other regions. It looks like each market is responsible for its local knowledge part, but at the same time, entire global supply chain is aligned together for supply chain strategy.

Friday, February 28, 2020

The American Journalist Robert Kaplan stated that anyone who Essay

The American Journalist Robert Kaplan stated that anyone who disbelieves Hobbes' state of nature argument has never visited Co - Essay Example One of the most famous journalists from America, Robert Kaplan has attributed such a term to the society of Cote da’Ivoire, also called in English has the Ivory Coast. To make a statement of such magnitude, there must be some sense going behind it. And indeed, when one sees the current crisis in the Ivory Coast on both the social and political fronts, one is ought to come to the conclusion that Hobbes description of ‘state of nature’ is still prevalent. (Volkov 2011) The troubled lands of West Africa saw an unusual development in political and societal fronts through the land of Ivory Coast. After its independence from the French in 1960, there was a line of hope within the minds of people of this country to stand tall amongst other nations. But, it all came down when the first political crisis rose in Abidjan in 2002. Irrespective of the presence of the French troupes in the country, deployed primarily to seize any such rebellions against the government, the poli tical scenario was split into two with the rebels occupying the entire northern half of the country. When the United Nations came into picture, a deal was struck wherein the rebels, the Ivorians and the ruling government would combine together to form a united governance.

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Introduction to computing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Introduction to computing - Essay Example f software programs that run on a much deeper level than these surface uses that are essential to the usability and accessibility of any of these other programs. This type of software is called system software, without which the computer would be a nearly useless collection of plastic, metal and wires. This software governs everything from how the computer stores and interprets data to how it is analyzed and accessed and eventually displayed on the screen for user input. Additionally, how the computer responds to user signals is also managed by system software in operations that are generally never seen or even imagined by the end user. To understand how this works, it is necessary to understand the difference between the shell and the kernel embedded in the operating system as well as the main features of graphic user interfaces as opposed to command line or human/computer interfaces, ending with a look at some of the more common programs such as Unix, Linux and Windows Vista. A shell is the interface program that allows a user to communicate with the computer. Like the shell of a turtle or crustacean, the shell can be viewed as the outermost layer of the computer’s operating system. â€Å"Shells incorporate a programming language to control processes and files, as well as to start and control other programs† (â€Å"Chapter 11†, 1997). There are various ways in which a shell acts to facilitate information transfer between the user and the computer including providing the necessary prompts for user input, translating that input into language that the computer can understand and acting to turn any output from the computer into usable information back out to the user. This process can take place either through information transferred through the use of a keyboard or through the execution of a set of commands contained in a file called a shell script. â€Å"When you log in to the system, the system locates the name of a shell program to execute. Once executed,